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What causes wrinkles?

Facial rejuvenation

There are many factors that contribute to wrinkles. Sun damage, smoking, dehydration, some medications, as well as a number of other factors may also cause wrinkles to develop. Wrinkles are an inevitable part of the natural ageing process. As we become older our skin gets thinner, drier and less elastic.

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Significant factors


We all age and the fact is that wrinkles are a by-product of the ageing process. As time passes, skin cells divide slower, and the inner layer of the skin begins to thin. The network of fibres which support the outer layer, loosens and unravel, which results in wrinkles on the surface. With ageing, skin also loses its elasticity, becomes more fragile and is less able to retain moisture. In addition, oil-secreting glands are less efficient which makes the skin drier and appear more wrinkled.

Facial muscle contractions

Lines between the eyebrows and lines jutting from the corner of the eyes are believed to develop because of the underlying muscle contractions. Smiling, frowning, squinting, and other habitual facial expressions cause these wrinkles to become more prominent. Over time, the expressions coupled with gravity contribute to the formation of jowls and drooping eyelids.

Sun damage

Excessive exposure to too much sun can result in premature aging of the skin. The ultraviolet sunrays that cause ageing damage skin fibres which are important components of the skin’s connective tissue. Without them, the skin loses its strength and flexibility, leading to wrinkles. When ultraviolet light damages skin tissue, an enzyme is produced which creates and reforms collagen. However, during this process some healthy collagen fibres are damaged, resulting in a disorganized formation of fibres called solar scars. Wrinkles develop when the rebuilding process occurs over and over.


Healthy skin perpetually regenerates. While old collagen is broken down and removed, new collagen is being produced and installed. Researchers have found that smoke causes a marked reduction in the production of new collagen. A lack of new collagen results in the development of wrinkles. This may also be due to the lack of blood supply to the skin caused by smoking.

What are the treatment options for wrinkles?

Botox® is a medicine derived from the botulinum toxin and it blocks the chemical signals that cause muscles to contract. Botox is injected into the muscles whose contractions cause wrinkles such as between the eyebrows and the lines that radiate from the corner of the eyes (crow's feet). The effects of Botox usually last for 3-4 months. When the Botox wears off, the muscles again become active and the wrinkles will begin to reform. The treatment would then be repeated. If you choose not to repeat the injections, your wrinkles will return no worse than they were initially.

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